Professor Beverley-Ann Biggs leads a research group with interests in immigrant and refugee health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, and nutrition.

Refugee health projects have investigated the burden of undiagnosed infections and nutritional deficiencies in immigrants from Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Afghanistan, Eastern Mediterranean region, and the Horn of Africa. Our most recent project is building a path of efficient communication between hospital specialists and primary care providers through an electronic health record for refugees and immigrants that will link four teaching hospitals with GPs for clinical management of patients, and also for clinical research.

International health activities are based in the Mekong countries and have focused on the introduction, evaluation and expanded use of new and under utilised vaccines, and strengthening capacity for research and control of malaria and parasitic diseases. A new initiative has piloted regular deworming therapy and iron supplements for the control of anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai Province, Vietnam. This intervention has recently been assessed in a randomised controlled trial in pregnant women.


Selected Books and Chapters

  1. Biggs B-A and Skull S.A. Refugee Health: Clinical Issues. In: The Health of Refugees: Public Health Perspectives from Crisis to Settlement. PA Allotey, editor. South Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, pp. 54-67. (2003)
  2. Gardiner J, Walker K, Biggs B-A, Lemoh C. Contributors to ‘Promoting Refugee Health: A guide for doctors and other health care providers caring for people from refugee backgrounds. (2nd Ed., pp 292). Publishers: Foundation House - The Victorian Foundation for Survivors of Torture. (2007)
  3. Schulz T, Biggs B-A. Infectious Disease and Refugee Health. In: Refugees Worldwide, vol 2. Editors: Uma A. Segal and Doreen Elliott. Praeger. California, United States: Praeger, pp.59-100. ISBN: 978-0-313-37807-2. (2012)
  4. Schulz T, Paxton G, Biggs B-A. Infectious diseases: Considerations in a refugee population. In: Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health. Editors: Sana Loue and Martha Sajatovic. Springer Science, pp 902 – 910. XXXVI, ISBN: 978-1-4419-5659-0. (2012)
  5. Sheorey H, Walker J, Biggs B-A. (2013) Clinical Parasitology. A handbook for microbiologists and physicians. Erudite Medical Books, Carlton, Victoria.

Selected Peer-reviewed Journal Articles and Guidelines

  1. Brown G.V, Biggs B-A. Malaria: Advice to travellers. Aust Fam Physician. 19: pp 177-183, 187-192 (1990)
  2. Rogerson SJ, Biggs B-A, Brown GV. Chemoprophylaxis and treatment of malaria. Aust. Fam. Physician. 23: pp 1696-1697, 1700-5, 1709. (1994)
  3. Hipgrave DB, Leydon JA, Walker J, Biggs B-A. Schistosomiasis in Australian travellers to Africa. Med. J. Aust. 166: pp 294-297 (1997)
  4. Beeson J, Biggs B-A. Will global change have an impact on malaria? Microbiol. Aust. May: 7-9 (2000)
  5. Robinson P, Jenney AW, Tachado M, Yung A, Manitta J, TayloR K, Biggs B-A. Imported malaria treated in Melbourne, Australia: epidemiology and clinical features in 246 patients. J. Travel. Med. 8: pp 76-81 (2001)
  6. Lim L, Biggs B-A. Fatal disseminated strongyloidiasis in a previously screened and treated patient. Med. J. Aust. 174: pp 355-356 (2001)
  7. Hughes AJ, Biggs B-A. Parasitic worms of the central nervous system: an Australian perspective. Intern. Med. J. 32: pp 541-553 (2002)
  8. De Silva S, Saykao P, Kelly H, Macintyre CR, Ryan N, Leydon J, Biggs B-A. Chronic Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Laotian immigrants and refugees 7-20 years after resettlement in Australia. Epidemiol. Infect. 128: pp 439-444 (2002)
  9. Lim L, Biggs B-A. Diagnosis and treatment of Strongyloidiasis. Microbiol Aust. May: 14-15 (2002)
  10. O’Brien D, Biggs B-A. Malaria prevention in the expatriate and long-term traveler. Aust. Pres. 25: pp 66-69 (2002)
  11. Skull SA, Ngeow JYY, Biggs B-A, Street A, Ebeling PR. Vitamin D deficiency is common and unrecognized among recently arrived adult immigrants from The Horn of Africa. Intern Med J. 33: pp 47-51 (2003)
  12. Caruana SR, Kelly H, de silva SL, Chea L, Nuon S, Saykao P, Bak N, Biggs B-A. Knowledge about hepatitis and previous exposure to hepatitis viruses in immigrants and refugees from the Mekong Region. Aust N Z J Public Health. 29: pp 64-68 (2005)
  13. Karunajeewa H, Kelly H, Leslie D, Leydon J, Saykao P, Biggs B-A (2006). Parasite specific IgG response and peripheral blood eosinophil count following albendazole treatment for presumed chronic strongyloidiasis. J Trav Med. 13(2):84-91.
  14. Caruana SR, Kelly, HA, Ngeow JY, Ryan N, Chea, L, Nuon, S, Bak, N, Skull SA, Biggs B-A. Undiagnosed and potentially lethal parasitic infections among immigrants to Australia. J Trav Med. 13: pp 233–239 (2006)
  15. Tiong AC, Patel MS, Gardiner J, Ryan R, Linton KS, Walker KA, Scopel J, Biggs B-A. Health issues in newly arrived African refugees attending general practice clinics in Melbourne. Med J Aust. 185: pp 602-606 (2006)
  16. Goller JL, Jolley D, Ringwald P, Biggs B-A. Regional differences in the response of Plasmodium vivax malaria to primaquine as anti relapse therapy. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 76: pp 203-207.
  17. Neale A, Ngeow YY, Skull SA, Biggs B-A. Health services utilisation and barriers for settlers from the Horn of Africa. Aust NZ J Public Health. 31: pp 333-335 (2007)
  18. Neale A, Abu-Duhou J, Black J, Biggs B-A. Health services: knowledge, use and satisfaction of Afghan, Iranian and Iraqi settlers in Australia. Diversity in Health and Social Care. 4: pp 267-276 (2007)
  19. Skull SA, Ngeow Y. Y., Hogg G, Biggs B-A. Incomplete immunity and missed vaccination opportunities in East African immigrants settling in Australia. J Immigr Minor Health. 10: pp 263-268 (2008)
  20. Gibney KB, MacGregor L, Leder K, Torresi J, Marshall C, Ebeling PR, Biggs B-A. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 46: pp 443-446 (2008)
  21. Gibney KB, Torresi J, Lemoh C, Biggs B-A (2008). Isolated core antibody hepatitis B in sub-saharan African immigrants. J Med Virol. 80(9):1565-69. (Cited by 15) IF:2.9
  22. Lemoh C, Biggs B-A, Hellard M. Working with West African migrant communities on HIV prevention in Australia. Sexual Health. 5: pp 313-314 (2008)
  23. Lemoh C, Guy R, Yohannes K, Lewis J, Street A, Biggs B-A, Hellard M. Delayed diagnosis of HIV infection in Victoria 1994-2006. Sexual Health. 6: pp 117-122.(2009)
  24. Biggs B-A, Caruana S, Mihrshahi S, Jolley D, Leydon J, Chea L, Nuon S. Short Report: Management of Chronic Strongyloidiasis in Immigrants and Refugees: Is Serologic Testing Useful? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 80: pp 788-791 (2009)
  25. Gibney KB, Mihrshai S, Torresi J, Marshall C, Leder K, Biggs B-A. The profile of health problems in African Immigrants attending an Infectious Disease Unit in Melbourne, Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 80: pp 805-811 (2009)
  26. Palmer R, Lemoh C, Tham R, Hakim, S, Biggs B-A. (2009). Sudanese women living in Victoria, Australia: health-information seeking behaviours and the availability, effectiveness and appropriateness of HIV/AIDS information. Diversity in Health and Care. 6: pp 109-20 (2009)
  27. Chaves NJ, Gibney KB, Leder K, O’Brien DP, Marshall C, Biggs B-A. Screening practices for infectious diseases among Burmese refugees in Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 15:1769-1772 (2009)
  28. Murray RJ, Davis JS, Burgner DP; Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Refugee Health Guidelines Writing Group, Hansen-Knarhoi M, Krause V, Biggs B-A, Lemoh C, Benson J, Cherian S, , Buttery J, Paxton G. The Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases guidelines for the diagnosis, management and prevention of infections in recently arrived refugees: an abridged outline. Med J Aust. 190: pp 421-425 (2009)
  29. Yong MK, Beckett CL, Leder K, Biggs B-A, Torresi J, O’Brien DP. Long-term follow up of Schistosomiasis serology post treatment in Australian travelers and immigrants. J Travel Med. 17: pp 89-93 (2010)
  30. Lemoh CN, Baho S, Grierson J, Hellard ME, Street A, Biggs B-A. African Australians living with HIV: case series from Victoria. Sexual Health. 7:142-148 (2010)
  31. Pasricha SR, Biggs B-A. Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia. J Paediatrics Child Health. 46: pp 497-503 (2010)
  32. Fisher J, Tran T, Biggs B-A, Tran T, Dwyer T, Casey G, Tho DH and Hetzel B. Iodine status in women in late pregnancy and psychosocial determinants of iodized salt use in rural northern Viet Nam. Bull World Health Organ. 89: pp 813-820 (2011)
  33. Ratnam I, Black J, Leder K, Biggs B-A, Matchett E, Padiglione A, Woolley I, Panagiotidis T, Gherardin T, Pollissard L, Demont C, Luxemburger C, Torresi J. Incidence and seroprevalence of dengue virus infections in Australian travellers to Asia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 31: pp 1203-1210 (2012)
  34. Shulz T, Leder K, Maloof T, Biggs B-A. Health issues in the refugee population. Medicine Today. [Accepted 5 January, 2012]
  35. Thompson J, Biggs B-A, Pasricha S-R. Effects of daily iron supplementation in 2-5 year old children: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics.[Accepted 26 November, 2012]
  36. Pasricha SR, Drakesmith H, Black J, Hipgrave D, Biggs B-A. (2013). Control of iron deficiency anemia in low and middle-income countries. Blood. 121(14):2607-17.
  37. Ratnam I, Leder K, Black J, Biggs B-A, Matchett E, Padiglione A, Woolley I, Panagiotidis T, Gherardin T, Luxemberger C, Torresi J. Low risk Japanese encephalitis in short-term Australian travelers to Asia. (2013) J Travel Med. 20(3):206-208.
  38. Pasricha S-R, Hayes E, Kalumba K, Biggs B-A. (2013). Effect of daily iron supplementation on health in children aged 4–23 months: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet G H. 1:e77-e86.
  39. Hanieh S, Ha TT, Simpson JA, Casey GJ, Khuong NC, Thoang DD, Thuy TT, Pasricha S-R, Tran TD, Tuan T, Dwyer T, Fisher J, Biggs B-A. The effect of intermittent antenatal iron supplementation on maternal and infant outcomes in rural Viet Nam: a cluster randomised trial. PLoS Med.10(6):e1001470.
  40. Tran TD, Biggs B-A, Tran T, Simpson JA, Hanieh S, Dwyer T, Fisher J. Impact on infants’ cognitive development of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency disorder and common mental disorders. PLOS ONE. Accepted 8 August 2013.

Refugee Health Guidelines

  1. Promoting Refugee Health: A guide for doctors and other health care providers caring for people from refugee backgrounds (292pp; 2nd edition, 2007). A comprehensive guide to working with clients from refugee backgrounds.
  2. Caring for refugee patients in general practice: A desk–top guide (21pp; 3rd edition, 2007).
  3. Murray R, Davis J, Krause V, Biggs B-A, Lemoh C, Benson J, Paxton G, Buttery J, Hansen-Knarhoi, Burgner D. Diagnosis, management and prevention of infections in recently arrived refugees. ASID (2009). Dreamweaver Publishing.

Further information about our work and publications can be found at

A/Prof Karin Leder

Karin Leder is head of Travel medicine and Immigrant Health. Karin is the Melbourne Site Director for GeoSentinel, a sentinel surveillance network funded by the Centres of Disease Control (USA) that monitors imported infections.

She is on the Executive Board of the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM), and is also a Member of the ISTM Research Awards Committee and of the ISTM Migrant and Refugee Health Committee. She has also been a member of the Scientific Committees and an invited speaker at all international ISTM conferences held since 2008. She is scientific chair of the next Asia Pacific Travel Health Conference to be held in Vietnam, May 2014, and is on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Travel Medicine. She is also Editor for the Travel Medicine section of UpToDate.

Karin has a strong interest in imported infections among travellers and immigrants. In particular, she is interested in parasite infections; fever, diarrhea and skin infections in travellers and immigrants; and leprosy. She also runs a pre-travel vaccination clinic at the RMH, and has a special interest in travellers going "home" to visit friends and relatives (VFR travellers)

Journal publications

  1. McCarthy AE, Weld L, Barnett ED, So H, Coyle C, Greenaway C, Stauffer B, Leder K Lopez-Velez R, Gautret P, Castelli F, Jenks N, Walker, P, Cetron M. Health conditions reported from symptomatic international migrants seen at GeoSentinel clinics. Clin Infec Dis (In press)
  2. OToole J, Sinclair M, Hamilton AJ, Barker F, Leder K. Household greywater use practices in Melbourne, Australia. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply (In press)
  3. Sinclair MI, O'Toole J, Malawaraarachchi M, Leder K. Comparison of response rates and cost-effectiveness for a community-based survey: postal, internet and telephone modes with generic or personalised recruitment approaches. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2012, 12:132.
  4. OToole J, Sinclair M, Hamilton AJ, Barker F, Leder K. Microbial quality assessment of household greywater. Water Res Water Res, 2012;46(13):4301-13.
  5. N Najnin, M Sinclair, A Forbes, K Leder. Community based study to compare the incidence and health services utilization pyramid for gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermal symptoms. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Jul 23;12:211.
  6. M Sinclair, J O’Toole, M Malawaraarachchi, K Leder. Household behaviour and motivations for greywater use. Water, 2012, 39(3):83-87.
  7. Rodrigo S, Sinclair M, Leder K. Water and sediment quality of rainwater tanks. Water, 2012 (March): 83-7.
  8. Gautret, P; Gaudart, J; Leder, K; Schwartz, E; Castelli, F; Lim, PL; Murphy, H; Keystone, J; Cramer, J; Shaw, M; Boddaert, J; von Sonnenburg, F; Parola, P. Travel-Associated Illness In Older Adults. J Trav Med, 2012; 19(3):169-77.
  9. K Leder, L Chen, M Wilson. Aggregate travel vs.csingle trip assessment: arguments for cumulative risk analysis. Vaccine, 2012, 30:2600-4.
  10. Schulz T, Leder K, Maloof T, Biggs BA. Health issues in the refugee population. Medicine Today, 2012; 13(3): 79-85.
  11. I Ratnam, J Black, J Torresi, E Matchett, K Leder, BA Biggs, I Woolley, A Padiglione, C Demont, L Pollissard, C Luxemburger, T Gherardin, T Panagiotidis. Incidence and Seroprevalence of Dengue Virus Infections in Australian Travellers to Asia. EJCMID, 2012 Jun;31(6):1203-10.
  12. K Leder, S Lau, P Leggat. Innovative community-based initiatives to engage VFR travelers. TMAID, 2011, 9, 258-61.
  13. JM Pasricha, AC Street, K Leder. A rash and cough in a traveller. Clin Infect Dis, 2011;53(2):205-6.
  14. M Malawaraarachchi, J O’Toole, M Sinclair, K Leder. Review of greywater use in Australia. Water Journal, July 2011: 97-102.
  15. P Gautret, P Lim, M Shaw, K Leder. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in travelers returning from Bali, Indonesia, November 2008-December 2009. CMI, 2011;17(3):445-7
  16. S. Rodrigo, M. Sinclair, R. Wolfe, K. Leder. Risk factors for gastroenteritis: A nested case-control study. Epi and Infect, 2011;139(4):552-9.
  17. S Rodrigo, M Sinclair, A Forbes, D Cunliffe, K Leder. Drinking Rainwater: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Study of Water Treatment Filters and Gastroenteritis Incidence. Am J Pub Health, 2011, 101(5): 842-847.
  18. Leggat P, Leder K. Reducing the impact of influenza amongst travelers. J Trav Med, 2010;17(6):363-6.
  19. M I Sinclair, J O’Toole, A Forbes, D Carr, K Leder. Health Status of Residents of Urban Dual Reticulation Systems. Int J Epidemiology, 2010;39(6):1667-75.
  20. Talbot EA, Chen LH, Sanford C, McCarthy A, Leder K. Travel Medicine Research Priorities: Establishing an Evidence Base. J Trav Med, 2010;17(6):410-5.
  21. K Dale, M Kirk, M Sinclair, R Hall, K Leder. Reported waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease in Australia are predominantly associated with recreational exposure. Aust NZ J Pub Health, 2010; 34:527-30.
  22. O’Toole J, Sinclair M, Leder K. Quantitative microbial risk assessment and Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling: two case studies. Food Australia, 2010, 62(Sep):408.
  23. A J Stewardson, K Leder, Joseph Torresi, D Johnson. Two cases of Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Australian travelers visiting Morocco. J Trav Med, 2010: 17;278–280.
  24. P Jones, I Woolley, K Leder, P Cameron, A Cheng, D Spelman. The care of asplenic and hyposplenic patient: Best practice guidelines. Australian Family Physician, 2010;39(6):383-6.
  25. S Hagmann, N Reddy, R Neugebauer, M Purswani, K Leder. Identification of Future Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives Abroad by Assessing Intention to Travel among Immigrant Families. J Trav Med, 2010;17(3):193-6.
  26. Rodrigo S, Sinclair M, Leder K. A survey of the characteristics and maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas of South Australia.Water Science & Technology, 2010;61(6):1569-77.
  27. MK Yong, CL Beckett, J Black, J Torresi, B ABiggs, K Leder, DP O’Brien. A longitudinal observational follow up study of Schistosomiasis serology in Australian travellers and immigrants. J Trav Med, 2010;17(2):89-93.
  28. P Schlagenhauf., LH Chen., ME Wilson, DO Freedman, D Tcheng, ESchwartz, P Pandey, R Weber, D Nadal., C Berger, F von Sonnenburg, J Keystone, K Leder, for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Gender and Travel-Associated Illness. Clin Infect Dis, 2010;50(6): 826-832.
  29. K Dale, R Wolfe, MI Sinclair, ME Hellard, K Leder. Sporadic gastroenteritis and recreational swimming in a longitudinal community cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. Am J Epidemiology, 2009;170(2):1469-1477.
  30. D M Urquhart, F S Hanna, S L Brennan, A E Wluka, K Leder, P Cameron, S Graves, F M Cicuttini. Incidence and Risk Factors for Deep Surgical Site Infection Following Primary Total Hip Replacement: A Systematic Review. Journal of Arthroplasty, 2010 25(8):1216-22.
  31. P Jones, K Leder, IJ Woolley, P Cameron, D Spelman. Patient knowledge of the risks of post splenectomy sepsis. ANZ J Surg, 2009; 799110;854-856.
  32. O’Toole J, Sinclair M, Keywood M, Leder K. Risk in the Mist? – Deriving data to quantify microbial health risks associated with aerosol generation by water-efficient devices during typical domestic water-using activities. Water Science and Technology, 2009;60(11):2913-20.
  33. J Torresi, K Leder. Defining the Spectrum of Infections in International Travellers through the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Nature Rev (Microbiology), 2009, 7(12): 895-901.
  34. O’Toole J, Sinclair M, Leder K. Collecting household water usage data: telephone questionnaire or diary? BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2009,9:72.
  35. N Chaves, K B. Gibney, K Leder, D O’Brien, C Marshall, BA Biggs. Adequacy of screening practices and burden of disease among Myanmar refugees referred to the infectious diseases unit of a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis, 2009, 15 (11):1769-72.
  36. M Jensenius, X Davis, F von Sonnenburg, E Schwartz, J S. Keystone, K Leder, R Lopéz-Véléz, E Caumes, J P Cramer, L Chen, and P Parola for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. A multicenter GeoSentinel.analysis of rickettsial diseases in international travelers, 1996-2008, Emerg Infect Dis, 2009, 15 (11):1791-8.
  37. HL. Kelsall, DP. McKenzie, MR. Sim, K Leder, AB. Forbes, T Dwyer. Physical, psychological and functional comorbidities of multisymptom illness in Australian male veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Am J Epidemiology, 2009, 170 (8):1048-1056.
  38. O’Toole, J., Sinclair, M., Jeavons T., Leder, K. Influence of Sample Preservation on Endotoxin Measurement in Water. Water Science and Technology, 2009, 60(6):1615-9.
  39. Rodrigo S, Sinclair M, Leder K. Effectiveness and cost of recruitment strategies for a community-based randomised controlled trial among rainwater drinkers. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2009;9:51.
  40. K Leder, M Sinclair, D Wain. Household clustering of gastroenteritis. Epidemiol Infect, 2009;1:1-8.
  41. K Gibney, S Mihrshai, J Torresi, C Marshall, K Leder, BA Biggs. The profile of health problems in African Immigrants attending an Infectious Disease Unit in Melbourne, Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2009; 80(5):805-811.
  42. O’Toole, J., Rodrigo, S., Sinclair, M. and Leder, K. The Australian Electoral Commission Role has good utility for ‘niche’ household recruitment in exposure assessment studies. Australian New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 2009; 33(2):137-139.
  43. Leder K, O'Toole JE, Sinclair MI. Water recycling -- forwards or backwards for public health? Med J Aust. 2009;190(6):293-4.
  44. O'Toole J, Sinclair M, Leder K. Transfer rates of enteric micro-organisms in recycled water during machine clothes washing. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2009;75(5):1256-63.
  45. K Leder. Travelers as a Sentinel Population: Use of Sentinel Networks to Inform Pretravel and Posttravel Evaluation. Curr Inf Dis Rep, 2009; 11(1):51-8.
  46. J O’Toole, M Sinclair, K Leder. Recycled water exposure: Filling the data gaps. Water, 2008; Dec: 66-71.
  47. O’Toole, J., Sinclair, M. and Leder K. Using bacteriophages in recycled water exposure assessment studies. Food and Environmental Virology, 2008;1(1):23-30.
  48. O’Toole, J., Sinclair, M. and Leder K. Maximising Response Rates in Household surveys. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2008;8(1):71.
  49. H Kelsall, DMcKenzie, M Sim, K Leder, J Ross, A Forbes, J Ikin. Comparison of self-reported and recorded vaccinations and health effects in Australian Gulf War veterans. Vaccine. 2008;26(33):4290-7.
  50. K Leder, ME Wilson, DO Freedman and J Torresi. A comparative analysis of methodological approaches used for estimating risk in travel medicine. J Trav Medicine 2008;15(4):263-72.
  51. J. O’Toole M. Sinclair and C. Diaper, K. Leder. Comparative survival of enteric indicators, E.coli and somatic and F-RNA bacteriophages on turf-grass irrigated with recycled water. Water Sci Technol. 2008;58(3):513-518.
  52. J. O’Toole, M. Sinclair and T. Jeavons, K. Leder. Alternative water sources and endotoxin. Water Sci Technol. 2008;58(3):609-613.
  53. Z Greenwood, J Black, LWeld, D O’Brien, K Leder, F Von Sonnenberg, P Pandey, E Schwartz, BA Connor, DO Freedman, G Brown, J Torresi, for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Group. Regional relative risks of gastrointestinal infection among international travelers – a global perspective. J Travel Med. 2008;15(4):221-8.
  54. Wilder-Smith A, Leder K, Tambyah PA. Importation of poliomyelitis to polio free countries via travelers: a test case for the revised international health regulations? EID, 2008, 14(2).
  55. Gibney KB, MacGregor L, Leder K, Torresi J, Marshall C, Ebeling PR, Biggs BA. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection among immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Infect Dis, 2008, 46(3):443-6.
  56. ND Friedman, AL Bull, PL Russo, K Leder, C Reid, B Billah, S Marasco, E McBryde, MJ Richards. An Alternative Scoring System to Predict Risk for Surgical Site Infection Complicating Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2007; 28(10):1162-8.
  57. O'Toole JO, Leder K, Sinclair M. Recycled water and human health effects. Aust Fam Physician. 2007;36(12):998-1000.
  58. PJ Robinson, B Billah, K Leder, D Dinh, GC Shardey , PD Skillington, JA Smith , CM Reid – on behalf of the ASCTS Database Committee. Factors associated with Deep Sternal Wound Infection and Haemorrhage following Cardiac Surgery in Australia. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg, 2007;6(2):167-71.
  59. K Leder, S Tong, L Weld, K C. Kain, A Wilder-Smith, J Black, F von Sonnenburg, GV Brown, J Torresi. Illness in Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives: A Review of the GeoSentinel Network. Clin Infect Dis, Nov 2006: 43(9):1185-93.
  60. O’Brien DP, Leder K, Matchett E, Brown GV, Torresi J. Illness in returned travellers and immigrants/refugees: the 6 year experience of two Australian infectious diseases units. J Trav Med. 2006; 13(3):145-152.
  61. Kelsall H, Sim M, McKenzie D, Forbes A, Leder K, Glass D, Ikin J, McFarlane A. Medically evaluated psychological and physical health of Australian Gulf War veterans with chronic fatigue. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2006; 60:575-584.
  62. Erin Smith, Ben Coghlan, Karin Leder. Avian Influenza: Clinical and Epidemiological Information for Paramedics and Emergency Healthcare Workers. JEPHC, 2006; 4 (1).
  63. M I Sinclair, M E Hellard, R Wolfe, T Z Mitakakis, K Leder, C K Fairley. Pathogens causing community gastroenteritis in Australia: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2005; 20(11):1685-90.
  64. K Leder, M Sinclair. Safe drinking water: lessons from recent outbreaks in affluent nations By S E. Hrudey and E J. Hrudey. Aust NZ J Public Health, 2005; Vol. 29 (2):190.
  65. K Leder, M E Hellard, M I Sinclair, CK Fairley, R Wolfe. No correlation between clinical symptoms and Blastocystis hominis in healthy individuals. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2005; 20(9):1390-4.
  66. D. O. Freedman, K Leder. Influenza: Changing Approaches to Prevention and Treatment in Travelers. J Trav Med, 2005;12(1):36-44.
  67. Leder K, Newman D. Respiratory infections during air travel. Internal Medicine Journal, 2005;35(1):50-5.
  68. Leder K, Black J, O’Brien D, Greenwood Z, Kain K, Schwartz E, Brown G, Torresi J. Malaria in travelers: a review of the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Clin Infect Dis, 2004;39(8):1104-1112.
  69. J H Elliott, D O’Brien, K Leder, S Kitchener, E Schwartz, L Weld, D O’Brien, G V Brown, K C Kain, J Torresi. Imported Plasmodium vivax malaria: demographic and clinical features in non-immune travellers. J Trav Med, 2004;11(4):213-219.
  70. T.Z. Mitakakis, R. Wolfe, M.I. Sinclair, C.K. Fairley, K. Leder, M.E. Hellard. Dietary intake and domestic food preparation and handling as risk factors for gastroenteritis – a case control study. Epidemiology & Infection, 2004;132 (4): 601-606.
  71. Mitakakis TZ, Sinclair MI, Leder K. Alternative water sources and reuse for Australian cities – what are the public health issues? Med J Aust, 2004;180(6):260-1.
  72. T Z Mitakakis, M I Sinclair, C K Fairley, PK Lightbody, K Leder, M Hellard. Food safety in the homes of Melbourne families. J Food Protection, 2004;67(4):818-22.
  73. K Leder, M Sinclair, T Z Mitakakis, M Hellard, A Forbes, C Fairley. A Community-Based Study of Respiratory Events in Melbourne. A NZ J Public Health 2003:27(4): 399-404.
  74. Leder K, Sundararajan V, Weld L, Pandey P, Brown G, Torresi J. Respiratory tract infections in travelers: a review of the GeoSentinel surveillance network. Clin Infect Dis 2003:36(4):399-406.
  75. K Leder, M Sinclair, J J McNeil. Water and the environment: a natural resource or a limited luxury? Med J Aust 2002:177:609-613.
  76. DN Fisman, D Agarwal, K Leder. The Effect of Age on the Immunologic Response to Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine: A Meta-analysis. Clin Infec Dis. 2002;35(11):1368-75.
  77. Leder, K. HIV-infected travellers: What precautions should they take? J Respir Dis. 2002; 23(4):259-269.
  78. Leder, K. HIV-infected travellers: What should they avoid? J Respir Dis. 2002; 23(6):344-351.
  79. K Leder, PF Weller, MA Wilson. Travel Vaccines in the Elderly: Review of Vaccines Available in the US. Clin Infect Dis, Nov 2001; 33(9):1553-66.
  80. K Leder, PF Weller. Eosinophilia and helminthic infections. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. Jun 2000;13:301-17.
  81. K Leder, T F Barlam. A case of paraspinal abscess and discitis due to Peptostreptococcus micros. Clin Infect Dis, Mar 2000; 30:622-3.
  82. Leder, K, Turnidge, JD, Korman, TM, & Grayson, ML. The clinical efficacy of continuous-infusion flucloxacillin in serious staphylococcal sepsis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Jan 1999; 43(1):113-8.
  83. K Leder, N Ryan, D Spelman, SM Crowe. Microsporidial disease in HIV infected patients: A report of 42 patients and review of the literature. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1998; 30(4):331-8.
  84. K Leder, JD Turnidge, ML Grayson. Home-based treatment of cellulitis with twice-daily cefazolin. Medical Journal of Australia, Nov 1998; 169(10):519-522.
  85. Tee, W., Leder, K., Karroum, E., Dyall-Smith, M. “Flexispora rappini” bacteremia in a child with pneumonia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, June 1998; 36(6):1679-1682.
    Books and Book Chapters
  86. Allen Yung, Karin Leder, Joseph Torresi, Tilman Ruff, Dan O’Brien, Mike Starr, Jim Black. Manual of Travel Medicine: a pre-travel guide for health care practitioners, 3rd Ed. IP Communications, Victoria, Australia, 2011.


  1. R Behrens, K Leder. Visiting Friends and Relatives. Travel Medicine, 3rd Ed. Elsevier, Oxford UK (In press). 88. S McGuiness, K Leder. Cryptosporidium. Clinical Decision Support: Infectious Disease. Decision
  2. Support in Medicine, LLC, Delaware, USA (In press).
  3. S McGuiness, K Leder. Entamoeba. Clinical Decision Support: Infectious Disease. Decision Support in Medicine, LLC, Delaware, USA (In press).
  4. S McGuiness, K Leder. Giardia. Clinical Decision Support: Infectious Disease. Decision Support in Medicine, LLC, Delaware, USA (In press).
  5. K Leder, J Torresi, M Shaw. The profile of infections in Australia and New Zealand. In: A Geographic Guide to Infectious Diseases, 1st Ed. John Wiley and Sons, UK 2011:309-325.
  6. K Leder, J Torresi, M Shaw. The profile of infections in Oceania. In: A Geographic Guide to Infectious Diseases, 1st Ed. John Wiley and Sons, UK 2011:326-340.
  7. K Leder, P Weller. Antiparasitic agents. Chapter 147, Manual of Clinical Microbiology (10th Ed), ASM Press, Washington DC, USA, 2011: 2277-2295.
  8. Karin Leder, Dan O’Brien. Infections in returned travellers & immigrants. In: Infectious Diseases: A clinical approach, 3rd Ed. IP Communications, Victoria, Australia, 2010: 487-504.
  9. K Leder. Intestinal Helminths. Tropical Diseases in Travelers, 1st Ed. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, UK 2009: 294-302.
  10. K Leder. Intestinal Protozoa. Tropical Diseases in Travelers, 1st Ed. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, UK 2009: 303-315.
  11. K Leder, PF Weller. Parasitic Diseases, Nervous System Effects. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Vol 7, p 435-439. L.R. Squire (Ed). Oxford: Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 2009.
  12. K Leder, PF Weller. Selected Parasitic Infections. Saunders Manual of Pediatric Practice. 2nd Ed. WB Saunders Co, Elsevier Science, Philadelphia, USA, 2002.

Author for Up-to-Date Chapters (peer-reviewed) (44 in total):

Ascariasis; Blastocystis hominis; Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis; Cryptosporidiosis; Diagnosis of leishmaniasis; Diagnosis of schistosomiasis; Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of lymphatic filariasis; Diagnosis; treatment and prevention of African trypanosomiasis; Enterobiasis and trichuriasis; Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of African trypanosomiasis; Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis; Epidemiology and control of Chagas' disease; Epidemiology and pathogenesis of babesiosis; Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of giardiasis; Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of lymphatic filariasis; Epidemiology; pathogenesis; and clinical features of schistosomiasis; Extraintestinal Entamoeba histolytica amebiasis; Free living amebas; Immunizations for travel; Intestinal amebiasis; Intestinal flukes; Intestinal tapeworms; Life cycle and epidemiology of echinococcal species; Liver flukes: Clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis; Liver flukes: Fascioliasis; Loiasis and mansonella infections; Management of the gastrointestinal and other manifestations of chronic Chagas' disease; Microsporidiosis; Miscellaneous nematodes; Onchocerciasis; Paragonimiasis; Travel advice; Treatment and prevention of echinococcosis; Treatment and prevention of giardiasis in adults; Treatment and prevention of leishmaniasis; Balantidium coli infection; Cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption); Cyclospora infections; Dientamoeba fragilis ; Hookworm infection; Isospora infections; Nonpathogenic enteric protozoa; Pulmonary manifestations of amebiasis; Pulmonary manifestations of ascariasis; Pulmonary manifestations of paragonimiasis; Strongyloidiasis; Trichinellosis; Tropical filarial pulmonary eosinophilia; Visceral larva migrans

  1. Screening practices for infectious diseases among Burmese refugees in Australia. Chaves NJ, Gibney KB, Leder K, O'Brien DP, Marshall C, Biggs BA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Nov;15(11):1769-72.
    The profile of health problems in African immigrants attending an infectious disease unit in Melbourne, Australia. Gibney KB, Mihrshahi S, Torresi J, Marshall C, Leder K, Biggs BA. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 May;80(5):805-11.
  2. Isolated core antibody hepatitis B in sub-Saharan African immigrants. Gibney KB, Torresi J, Lemoh C, Biggs BA. J Med Virol. 2008 Sep;80(9):1565-9.
    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Gibney KB, MacGregor L, Leder K, Torresi J, Marshall C, Ebeling PR, Biggs BA. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 1;46(3):443-6.
  • Fertility is significantly reduced by female genital tuberculosis: a case series
  • Schulz TR, Eisen DP. Intern Med J. 2012 Feb;42(2):224-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2011.02687.x. No abstract available.
  • Murray R, Davis J, Krause V, Biggs B-ABIGGS B-A, Lemoh C, Benson J, Paxton G, Buttery J, Hansen-Knarhoi, Burgner D. Diagnosis, management and prevention of infections in recently arrived refugees. ASID (2009). Dreamweaver Publishing.