Researchers proposing to expose research participants to ionising radiation should provide information that allows consent to be properly considered by research participants.
The Code of Practice for the Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes 2005 is designed to ensure that researchers proposing to expose research participants to ionising radiation provide information that allows consent to be properly considered by research participants.
“The researcher must prepare a submission to the Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) in accordance with its requirements. The submission must include the following information regarding radiation exposure:
- the reasons why it is necessary to expose research participants to ionising radiation for the purpose of the research;
- the radiation dose assessment and risk assessment made by a Medical Physicist;
- a statement confirming that the site at which the examination or procedure will be performed is actively involved in a relevant quality assurance program such as the programs of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists or of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Physicians in Nuclear Medicine;
- the precautions to be taken to keep radiation exposure to a minimum;
- the written information to be given to research participants relating to the doses and risks associated with the radiation exposure;
- for novel uses of radiation, the arrangements for a review of radiation doses actually received and the arrangements for retention of dose records.
Procedures that require a medical physicist report
Ionising radiation procedures
- Diagnostic imaging – for example, CT scans (including CT guided biopsies), DEXA scans, plain X-rays, fluoroscopy (such as PICC line insertion under fluoroscopy guidance) and angiography
- Nuclear medicine: all scans, including Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Gated blood pool scans (MUGA)
Non-ionising radiation procedures
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - (MRI)
If a person presents for MRI and there is any concern about metallic foreign bodies during MRI screening, plain X-rays will be performed before the MRI. As X-rays are an ionising radiation procedure, a Medical Physicist report is required.
Only projects where researchers have agreed to exclude the X-ray being performed in the event of possible metallic foreign bodies, will the report not be required. This must be stated in the Ethics Application.
For studies that include procedures involving exposure to ionising radiation (including pre-MRI safety screening examinations) deemed to be Standard Care at any of the participating sites, complete a Notification to the reviewing HREC for the use of Ionising Radiation in Research - Standard Care Form to be completed and signed by the Site Principal Investigator for each site.
For studies that include procedures involving exposure to ionising radiation (including pre-MRI safety screening examinations) deemed to be additional to standard care at any of the participating sites, submit a Medical Physics Radiation Dose and Risk Assessment for each site at which the radiation is deemed to be additional to standard care.
If the Medical Physics report indicates that the radiation dose has exceeded the dose constraints as outlined in the National Code of Practice, verification of the dose calculations must be undertaken by a second Medical Physicist. This is the responsibility of the medical physicist
Minimum requirements for medical physics radiation dose and risk assessment
Medical Physics Radiation Dose and Risk Assessment must be completed by a medical physicist and include the following information:
- Name of the site for which the assessment is being done
- Name and area of expertise of the approved Medical Physicist (that is, Diagnostic, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy). For research proposals specific to Victoria, the medical physicist must be approved by the Department of Health and Human Services
- Full title of the study with HREC number
- An estimate of the total effective dose and organ doses* (where relevant) to be received by the volunteer as part of their enrolment in the proposed research. *Organ Doses only need to be quoted where there is a potential for a deterministic outcome
- A statement as to whether the dose constraints are likely to be exceeded
- An assessment of the risks associated with the estimate of the total effective dose
- A recommended statement to be included in the Participant Information and Consent Form (PICF) related to the radiation dose being received, the associated risks, and the need for the volunteer to retain details of their radiation exposure
- The radiation risk category in accordance with the ARPANSA Code of Practice for the Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes (RPS8)
For interstate sites
Please contact the local regulatory agency to determine if there are any special approval requirements.
NSW: Manager Hazardous Materials, Chemicals and Radiation, Environment Protection Authority
QLD: Radiation Health, Department of Health
WA: Secretary, Radiological Council
SA: Manager, Radiation Protection, Environment Protection Authority